listed in the following categories

  1. Latest Publications from the Research Unit
  2. Books  and Reviews           
  3. Making Nanoporous Gold
  4. Heterogeneous Catalysis with Nanoporous Gold
  5. DFT Studies of Oxidation Reactions on NPAu
  6. Electrocapillarity, Actuation/Surface Stress
  7. SECM Investigation of Catalytic Layers
  8. Surface Chemistry of Nanostructured Au and Bimetallic Surfaces
  9. Transmission Electron Microscopy (Scanning Techniques and Quantification)
  10. Ab-initio based Quantitative Description of Binary Metal Surfaces as Function of the Environment

1. Latest Publications from the Research Unit

G. Wittstock, M. Bäumer, W. Dononelli, T. Klüner, L. Lührs, C. Mahr, L. V. Moskaleva, M. Oezaslan, T. Risse, A. Rosenauer, A. Staubitz, J. Weissmüller, A. Wittstock; Nanoporous Gold: From Structure Evolution to Functional Properties in Catalysis and Electrochemistry. Chem. Rev. 2023, 123, 6716-6792. (open access)


C. D. Feldt, P. A. Albrecht, S. Eltayeb, W. Riedel, T. Risse; Heterogeneity of oxygen reactivity: key for selectivity of partial methanol oxidation on gold surfaces, Chem. Comm. 2022, 58, 4336.


C. D. Feldt, T. Kirschbaum, J. L. Low, W. Riedel, T. Risse; Methanol oxidation on Au(332): methyl formate selectivity and surface deactivation under isothermal conditions, Catalysis Science & Technology 2022, 12, 1418.


S. Wild, M. Bäumer, T. Risse; Thermal Activation of Nanoporous Gold for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation, J. Phys. Chem. C 2022, 126, 1770.


A. R. Silva Olaya, F. Kühling, C. Mahr, B. Zandersons, A. Rosenauer, J. Weissmüller, G. Wittstock; Promoting Effect of the Residual Silver on the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol and Its Intermediates on Nanoporous Gold. ACS Catal. 2022, p 4415-4429


C. D. Feldt, T. Gimm, R. Moreira, W. Riedel, T. Risse; Methanol oxidation on Au(332): an isothermal pulsed molecular beam study, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2021, 23, 21599.


Y. Li, S. Li, M. Bäumer, L.V. Moskaleva; Transient Au–CO Complexes Promote the Activity of an Inverse Ceria/Gold Catalyst: An Insight from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics, J. Phys. Chem. C 2021, 125, 26406-26417.


C. D. Feldt, J. L. Low, P. A. Albrecht, K. Tang, W. Riedel, T. Risse; Low-Temperature Oxidation of Methyl Formate on Au(332), J. Phys. Chem. C 2021, 125, 26522.


J. Thayssen, A. Staubitz; Ein poröser Goldschwamm als Katalysator. Chem. Unserer Zeit 2021.


A. R. Silva Olaya, B. Zandersons, G. Wittstock; Effect of the residual silver and adsorbed lead anions towards the electrocatalytic methanol oxidation on nanoporous gold in alkaline media. Electrochimica Acta. 2021, 383, 138348 (p 1-15)


C. Mahr, A. Dworzak, M. Schowalter, M. Oezaslan, A. Rosenauer;

Quantitative 3D Characterization of Nanoporous Gold Nanoparticles by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Microsc. and Microanal. 2021, 7 (4), p. 678–686.


Y. Li, S. Li, M. Bäumer, E. A. Ivanova-Shor, L. V. Moskaleva; What Changes on the Inverse Catalyst? Insights from CO Oxidation on Au-Supported Ceria Nanoparticles Using Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics. ACS Catal. 2020, 10, 3164-3174.


A. R. Silva Olaya, B. Zandersons, G. Wittstock; Restructuring of nanoporous gold surface during electrochemical cycling in acidic and alkaline media. ChemElectroChem. 2020, 7, 3670-3678.


M. Haensch, M. Graf, W. Wang, A. Nefedov, C. Wöll, J. Weissmüller, G. Wittstock; Thermally-Driven Ag-Au Compositional Changes at the Ligament Surface in Nanoporous Gold: Implications for Electrocatalytic Applications. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2020, 3, 2197-2206.


W. Dononelli, G. Tomaschun, T. Klüner, L. V. Moskaleva; Understanding oxygen activation on nanoporous gold, ACS Catal., 2019, 9, 5204-5216.


C. Mahr, K. Müller-Caspary, R. Ritz, M. Simson, T. Grieb, M. Schowalter, F. F. Krause, A. Lackmann, H. Soltau, A. Wittstock, A. Rosenauer; Influence of distortions of recorded diffraction patterns on strain analysis by nano-beam electron diffraction. Ultramicroscopy 2019, 196, 74-82.


M. Haensch, L. Balboa, M. Graf, A.R. Silva Olaya, J. Weissmüller, G. Wittstock*, Mass Transport in Porous Electrodes Studied by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy: Example of Nanoporous Gold, Chem.Electro.Chem. 2019, 6, 3160-3166.


Hoppe, S., Moskaleva, L. V. Origins of the High Reactivity of Au Nanostructures Deduced from the Structure and Properties of Model Surfaces, in: Noble and Precious Metals - Properties, Nanoscale Effects and Applications, Seehra, M., Bristow, A. (Eds.), IntechOpen, Rijeka, 2018, pp. 65-98.


Tomaschun, G., Dononelli, W., Li, Y., Bäumer, M., Klüner, T., Moskaleva, L. V. Methanol oxidation on the Au (3 1 0) surface: A theoretical study, J. Catal. (2018) 364, 216-227.


Moskaleva, L.V.; Dononelli, W.; Klüner, T. Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation on Nanoporous Gold: Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of the Reactivity, Elsevier, in: Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Wandelt,K. (Ed.), Elsevier, Oxford, 2018, pp. 20-30.


Li, Y.; Dononelli, W.; Moreira, R.; Risse, T.; Bäumer, M.; Klüner, T.; Moskaleva, L. V., Oxygen-Driven Surface Evolution of Nanoporous Gold: Insights from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Auger Electron Spectroscopy. J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 5349-5357. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08873.


Dononelli, W.; Moskaleva, L. V.; Klüner, T., CO Oxidation over Unsupported Group 11 Metal Catalysts: New Mechanistic Insight from First-Principles. J. Phys. Chem. C 2018.


Feldt, C.D.; Moreira, R.; Meyer, C. P.; Riedel, W.; Risse, T.; Moskaleva, L.; Dononelli, W.; Klüner, T., CO Adsorption on Au(332): Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Study. J. Phys. Chem. C 2018.


Mahr, C.; Schowalter, M.; Mitterbauer, C.; Lackmann, A.; Fitzek, L.; Mehrtens, T.; Wittstock, A.; Rosenauer, A., Nanoporous gold dealloyed from AuAg and AuCu: Comparison of structure and chemical composition, Materialia 2018, 2, 131-137.


Lackmann, A.; Bäumer, M.; Wittstock, G.; Wittstock, A.; Independent control over structure size and residual silver content of nanoporous gold by galvanodynamically controlled dealloying. Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 17166-17173.


Mahr, C.; Müller-Caspary, K.; Graf, M.; Lackmann, A.; Grieb, T.; Schowalter, M.; Krause, F. F.; Mehrtens, T.; Wittstock, A.; Weissmüller, J.; Rosenauer, A., Measurement of local crystal lattice strain variations in dealloyed nanoporous gold. Mater. Res. Lett. 2018, 6 (1), 84-92.


M. Graf, M. Haensch, J. Carstens, G. Wittstock, J. Weissmüller; Electrocatalytic Methanol Oxidation with Nanoporous Gold: Microstructure and Selectivity. Nanoscale 2017, 9, 17839-17848.


Lackmann, A.; Mahr, C.; Schowalter, M.; Fitzek, L.; Weissmüller, J.; Rosenauer, A.; Wittstock, A., A comparative study of alcohol oxidation over nanoporous gold in gas and liquid phase. J. Catal. 2017, 353, 99-106.


Haensch, M.; Behnken, J.; Balboa, L.; Dyck, A.; Wittstock, G., Redox titration of gold and platinum surface oxides at porous microelectrodes. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2017, 19 (34), 22915-22925.


Mahr, C.; Kundu, P.; Lackmann, A.; Zanaga, D.; Thiel, K.; Schowalter, M.; Schwan, M.; Bals, S.; Wittstock, A.; Rosenauer, A., Quantitative determination of residual silver distribution in nanoporous gold and its influence on structure and catalytic performance. J. Catal. 2017, 352, 52-58.


Hoppe, S.; Li, Y.; Moskaleva, L. V.; Muller, S., How silver segregation stabilizes 1D surface gold oxide: a cluster expansion study combined with ab initio MD simulations. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2017, 19 (22), 14845-14853.


Krekeler, T.; Strasser, A. V.; Graf, M.; Wang, K.; Hartig, C.; Ritter, M.; Weissmuller, J., Silver-rich clusters in nanoporous gold. Mater. Res. Lett. 2017, 5 (5), 314-321.


Graf, M.; Roschning, B.; Weissmuller, J., Nanoporous Gold by Alloy Corrosion: Method-Structure-Property Relationships. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2017, 164 (4), C194-C200.

2. Books and Reviews

A. Wittstock, M. Bäumer, Catalysis by Unsupported Skeletal Gold Catalysts. Accounts Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 731-739.


A. Wittstock; J. Biener; J. Erlebacher; M. Bäumer, Nanoporous Gold: from an Ancient Technology to a Novel Material. 1 ed.; RSC: 2012; Vol. 1, 250 pages.


A. Wittstock; A. Wichmann; M. Bäumer, Nanoporous Gold as a Platform for a Building Block Catalyst. ACS Catalysis 2012, 2, 2199-2215.

3. Making Nanoporous Gold

J. Weissmüller,  R.C. Newman, H.-J. Jin,  A.M. Hodge, J.W. Kysar: Nanoporous Metals by Alloy Corrosion: Formation and Mechanical Properties, MRS Bulletin, 2009,  34, 553–624.


S. Parida, D. Kramer, C.A. Volkert, H. Rösner, J. Erlebacher, J. Weissmüller: Volume Change during the Formation of Nanoporous Gold by Dealloying, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006, 97, 035504.

4. Heterogeneous catalysis with nanoporous gold

A. Wichmann, A. Wittstock, K. Frank, M. Biener, B. Neumann, L. Mädler, J. Biener, A. Rosenauer, M. Bäumer, Maximizing Activity and Stability by Turning Gold Catalysis Upside Down: Oxide Particles on Nanoporous Gold. ChemCatChem 2013, 5 (7), 2037-2043.


K.M Kosuda, A. Wittstock, C.M. Friend, M. Baumer, Oxygen-Mediated Coupling of Alcohols over Nanoporous Gold Catalysts at Ambient Pressures, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 2012, 51 1698-1701.


A. Wittstock, V. Zielasek, J. Biener, C. M. Friend, M. Bäumer, Nanoporous Gold Catalysts for Selective Gas-Phase Oxidative Coupling of Methanol at Low Temperature, Science 2010, 327, 319-322.


A. Wittstock, B. Neumann, A. Schaefer, K. Dumbuya, C. Kübel, M. M. Biener, V. Zielasek, H.-P. Steinrück, J. M. Gottfried, J. Biener, A. Hamza, M. Bäumer, Nanoporous Au: An Unsupported Pure Gold Catalyst? J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 5593-5600.


V. Zielasek, B. Jürgens, C. Schulz, J. Biener, M. M. Biener, A. V. Hamza, M. Bäumer, Gold catalysts: Nanoporous gold foams, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 2006, 45, 8241-8244.

5. DFT studies of oxidation reactions on npAu

L. V. Moskaleva, V. Zielasek, T. Klüner, K. M. Neyman, M. Bäumer; CO oxidation by co-adsorbed atomic O on the Au(321) surface with Ag impurities: A mechanistic study from first-principles calculations. Chem. Phys. Lett., 2012, 525-526, 87.


L. V. Moskaleva, S. Röhe, A. Wittstock, V. Zielasek, T. Klüner, K. M. Neyman; Silver residues as a possible key to a remarkable oxidative catalytic activity of nanoporous gold. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 4529-4539.


W.-L- Yim, T. Nowitzki, M. Necke, H. Schnars, P. Nickhut, J. Biener, M. Biener, V. Zielasek, K. Al-Shamery, T. Klüner, M. Bäumer; Universal phenomena of CO adsorption on gold surfaces with low-coordinated sites. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 445.

6. Electrocapillarity, Actuation/surface stress

J. Biener, A. Wittstock, L. Zepeda-Ruiz, M.M. Biener, D. Kramer, R.N. Viswanath, J. Weissmüller, M. Bäumer, A.V. Hamza, Surface chemistry driven actuation in nanoporous gold, Nature Materials, 2009, 8, 47-51.

7. SECM investigation of catalytic layers

W. Nogala, K. Szot, M. Burchardt, F. Roelfs, J. Rogalski, M. Opallo, G. Wittstock*; Feedback mode SECM study of laccase and bilirubin oxidase immobilised in a sol‑gel processed silicate film. Analyst 2010, 135, 2051-2058.


C. Nunes Kirchner, M. Träuble, G. Wittstock*; Study of Diffusion and Reaction in Microbead Agglomerates. Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 2626-2635.


M. Burchardt, M. Träuble, G. Wittstock*; Digital Simulation of SECM Approach Curves to Enzyme Films with Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 4857-4863.

8. Surface Chemistry of nanostructured Au and bimetallic surfaces

T. Risse, S. Shaikhutdinov, N. Nilius, M. Sterrer, H.-J. Freund: Gold Supported on Thin Oxide Films: From Single Atoms to Nanoparticles,  Acc. Chem. Res. 2008, 41, 949-956.


M. P. Felicissimo, O. N. Martyanov, T. Risse, H.-J. Freund: Characterization of a Pd-Fe bimetallic model catalyst, Surf. Sci. 2007, 601, 2105-2116.


M. Yulikov, M. Sterrer, M. Heyde, H. P. Rust, T. Risse, H.-J. Freund, G. Pacchioni, A. Scagnelli: Binding of single gold atoms on thin MgO(001) films,  Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96, 146804.


M. Sterrer, M. Yulikov, E. Fischbach, M. Heyde, H. P. Rust, G. Pacchioni, T. Risse, H.-J. Freund: Interaction of gold clusters with color centers on MgO(001) films, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 2630-2632.


A. F. Carlsson, M. Bäumer, T. Risse, H.-J. Freund: Surface structure of Co-Pd bimetallic particles supported on Al2O3 thin films studied using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of CO,  J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 10885-10894.

9. Transmission electron microscopy (scanning    techniques and quantification)

K. Müller, A. Rosenauer, M. Schowalter, J. Zweck, R. Fritz, K. Volz, Strain Measurement in Semiconductor Heterostructures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Microscopy and Microanalysis, 2012, 18, 995-1009.


A. Rosenauer, T. Mehrtens, K. Müller, K. Gries, M. Schowalter, P.V. Satyam, S. Bley, C. Tessaredk, D. Hommel, K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, J. Gutowski, A. Avramescu, K. Engl, S. Lutgen, Composition mapping in InGaN by scanning transmission electron microscopy Ultramicroscopy, 2011, 111, 1316-1327.


A. Rosenauer, K. Gries, K. Müller, A. Pretorius, M. Schowalter, A. Avramescu, K. Engl, S. Lutgen: Measurement of specimen thickness and composition in AlxGa1-xN/GaN using high-angle annular dark field images, Ultramicroscopy, 2009, 109, 1171-1182.

10. Ab-initio based quantitative description of binary      metal surfaces as function of the environment

P. Welker, O. Wieckhorst, T.C. Kerscher, and S. Müller, Predicting the segregation profile of the Pt25Rh75(100) surface from first-principles, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010, 22, 384203.


D. Lerch, O. Wieckhorst, G.L.W. Hart, R. Forcade, and S. Müller, UNCLE: a code for constructing cluster expansions for arbitrary lattices with minimal user input, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2009, 17, 05503.


M. Stöhr, R. Podloucky, and S. Müller, Ab-initio phase diagram of oxygen adsorption on W(110). J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2009, 21, 134017.


D. Lerch. O. Wieckhorst, L. Hammer, K. Heinz, and S. Müller, Adsorbate Cluster Expansion for an Arbitrary Number of Inequivalent Sites. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 78, 121405(R).


S. Müller, M. Stöhr, O. Wieckhorst, Structure and stability of binary alloy surfaces: segregation, relaxation and ordering from firstprinciples, Appl. Phys. A 2006, 82, 419.


O. Wieckhorst, S. Müller, L. Hammer, and K. Heinz, First-principles based phase diagram of fully relaxed binary alloy surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 92, 195503.